Unit 9 - Industrialization
http://www.history.com/topics/industrial-revolution - History channel's site with some good videos for you to explore. Take the time to look around on the site, look for something that you might be interested in.
One of my favorite places to go is wikipedia.org. Try some searches like American Industrial Revolution, you will see a lot of the terms that come up in class and a lot more - you can click on a word that is highlighted blue and it will take you to a whole other page on that topic (thats where I get lost on the site sometimes and don't know where I started). There was also an Industrial Revolution that went on in Europe - if you type in Industrial Revolution it will bring up a mainly European based article that you should find interesting and connect the fact that the other parts of the world have developed much like the United States.
Stations from Monday, Tuesday & Wednesday (2/10 - 2/12/14) - Pictures below
Notes: Steam boats allowed travel on rivers to be in both directions both down and upstream, the use of existing bodies of water such as the Great Lakes
region. Drawbacks that trains did not possess were that transportation was limited in location and direction and canals took longer to build than laying rail.
?’s How did the canal development promote the development of urbanized areas of the North?
Name 3 towns that you can find on the map of canals that are major cities today.
Station 2 – Transportation 2 - Trains
Notes: Trains were a great way to transport goods, and unlike canals rail could be laid where it was necessary. The Transcontinental Railroad opened up the west and linked the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts.
?’s How could the connection of East and West Coasts help American businesses?
Why was it important to have factories and trains located next to each other?
Why would someone consider the replacement of canals with rail an improvement?
Station 3 – Agriculture
Notes: The mechanical reaper allowed for the quicker harvesting of crops, which meant that more could be farmed with less human labor. The cotton gin also allowed for this, however had a more negative side effect than did the mechanical reaper.
?’s With the rise of factories in this Industrial Revolution (Urbanization and Industrialization), what affect did a machine that made farms need less people
have on the labor supply of the factories?
The cotton gin increase the ability to clean cotton seeds from the fibers, making the amount one person could clean in a day’s time
50 times their previous amount. How did this increase the need for slave labor in the plantation economy of the American South?
Station 4 – Interchangeable Parts
Notes: After reading the provided piece, in your own words define an interchangeable part.
Interchangeable parts are parts (components) that are, for practical purposes, identical. They are made to specifications that ensure that they are so nearly identical that they will fit into any assembly of the same type. One such part can freely replace another, without any custom fitting (such as filing). This interchangeability allows easy assembly of new devices, and easier repair of existing devices, while minimizing both the time and skill required of the person doing the assembly or repair.
The concept of interchangeability was crucial to the introduction of the assembly line at the beginning of the 20th century, and has
become an important element of some modern manufacturing but is missing from other important industries. Interchangeability of parts was achieved by combining a number of innovations and improvements in machining operations and the invention of several machine tools, such as the slide rest lathe, screw-cutting lathe, turret lathe, milling machine and metal planer. Additional innovations included jigs for guiding the machine tools, fixtures for holding the work piece in the proper position, and blocks and gauges to check the accuracy of the finished parts.
Electrification allowed individual machine tools to be powered by electric motors, eliminating line shaft drives from steam engines or water power and
allowing higher speeds, making modern large scale manufacturing possible. Modern machine tools often have numerical control (NC) which evolved into CNC (computerized numeric control) when microprocessors became available.
Methods for industrial production of interchangeable parts in the United States were first developed in the nineteenth century. The term American system of manufacturing was sometimes applied to them at the time, in distinction from earlier methods. Within a few decades such methods were in use in various countries, so American system is now a term of historical reference rather than current industrial nomenclature.
?’s How could this concept have an effect on production if a machine stamped out exact pieces and someone assembled it versus creating individual items every time by a person that knows how to do it? How did the machine take out the need for human knowledge of how to make something?
Station 5–Bessemer’s Process
Notes: The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron. The process is named after its inventor, Henry Bessemer, who took out a patent on the process in 1855. The process had been used for hundreds of years, but not on an industrial
scale. The key principle is removal of impurities from the iron by oxidation with air being blown through the molten iron. The oxidation also raises the
temperature of the iron mass and keeps it molten.
How did the explosion of rail line coincide (happen at the same time) as the invention of the Bessemer Steel Process?
Up until this time, buildings were made of wood, surrounded by either more wood or brick. How could replacing wood with steel increase the strength of buildings? What could happen to a building’s height when steel was used for its frame?
Station 6 – Communication
?’s: Telegraph lines were a simple system of sending an electronic message across a copper line.
Describe some negative issues that may arise from telegraph lines.
Describe some benefits businesses would enjoy as a result of this invention.
Station 8 – the Steam Engine
?’s: Unlike a human worker, a steam engine was a constant supply of energy that would propel a factory machine, a boat’s propeller or a train’s wheel.
How was this a benefit to the owners of business that relied on transportation and factory production?
How would a steam powered machine be more “predictable” than a worker would?
Station 9 – The War of 1812
Blue Text - Ch. 10 Sec. 4 Pgs. 314-317 - Read the section of the text about the War of 1812.
?’s: How could the blockade of American ports by British ships create a problem for American businesses?
If all of the factories Americans used were in Britain/England, how could this war have caused American businessmen to begin building their own
Do you think there is a connection between the war and the growth of American factories? How?
Station10–Effects of Factories
If the factory decreased the need for knowledge on the human end, how did this impact the education level required for someone to make it through life? What type of life do you predict they had? Compare to a modern example of someone not having an education, what type of job might they have if they really didn’t need to know much in order to do it.
Station 11 – Vocabulary
Please find the following words in the dictionary and then enter their definition to your Unit 9 vocabulary page:
Notes from Thursday's class
The STEAM ENGINE
In 1781 James Watt patented a steam engine that produced continuous rotative motion. Watt's ten-horsepower engines enabled a wide range of manufacturing machinery to be powered. The engines could be sited anywhere that water and coal or wood fuel could be obtained. This would later be used on vehicles such as wagons on rails – known as trains, and boats – known as steam boats.
What benefits can you see of the power of steam versus animal or man power?
The COTTON GIN
A cotton gin is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, allowing for much greater productivity than manual cotton separation. The fibers are processed into clothing or other cotton goods, and any undamaged seeds may be used to grow more cotton or to produce cottonseed oil and meal.
Although simple handheld roller gins have been used in India and other countries since at least 500 AD, the first modern mechanical cotton gin
was created by American inventor Eli Whitney in 1793, and patented in 1794. It used a combination of a wire screen and small wire hooks to pull the cotton
through, while brushes continuously removed the loose cotton lint to prevent jams. Whitney's gin revolutionized the cotton industry in the United States, but
also led to the growth of slavery in the American South as the need for cotton workers rapidly increased. The invention has thus been identified as a
contributing factor to the outbreak of the American Civil War.
How did the invention of the cotton gin increase the demand for slavery?
An electrical telegraph was developed and patented in 1837 by Samuel Morse. The first telegram in the United States was sent by Morse on 11
January 1838, across two miles of wire near Morristown, New Jersey. From then on, commercial telegraphy took off in America with lines linking all the major
metropolitan centers on the East Coast within the next decade. The overland telegraph connected the west coast of the continent to the east coast by 24
How did this invention help in business communication?
Here is the key to the review.
Graded Assignments for Unit 9
Monday February 9th HW - How would Industrialization in America have been different without the effects from the War of 1812?
Classwork - group work - Graphic Organizer of Agricultural Inventions, Canals and Railroads, Growth of Northern Manufacturing
ClassworkNotes on the pictures we looked at in groups
HW - How would you explain the combination of canals, telegraphs, steamboars and railroads' affect on American Industrialization?
Classwork - How would you compare the conditions of plantations and factories?
Project - RAFT Paper: Write a RAFT paper explaining the economic factors and technological innovations that brought about rapid industrialization and urbanization and their effects on different regions. - Below is the format that was passed out in class on Monday February 25th.
Tuesday - February 19th, 2013
website - http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ss5/b/ecotech19l.cfm
Homework - How would you explain the combination of canals, telegraphs, steamboats, and railroads effect on American Industrialization?
Class notes from Monday – February 11th, 2013
In our discussion about cause and effect situations, we shared a number of examples and talked about the fact that effects are the results of actions (causes).
We talked about this because American Industrialization, and subsequently Urbanization, were effects of the War of 1812. The war, which was fought against England, created a situation in America that essentially forced us to begin an alternative route to production, one that did not utilize English factories and found American businesses investing in factories in the U.S. This is the effect that the piracy and intimidation of England that led to the War of 1812 resulted in.
Class discussion ended in a brief foreshadowing of how this new Industrial base in America blossomed as settlers headed west to tame the lands we just learned about in our last unit, as new markets opened up for the industrial products being produced. This all would be connected by a vast railroad system that connected the Atlantic coast with the Pacific and the northern borders with the southern.
Vocabulary for Unit 9
Cotton Manufacturing Industry - starts at the plantation with the crop being grown, picked and cleaned; bundled up and sent to northern factories to be turned first into fabric and then into clothing
Human Modification - humans changing (modifying) the environment around them. Examples - train tracks, canals, cities
Urbanization - the growth of an urban area (city)
Industrialization - the growth of factories and production abilities
Plantation System - system where large tracts of land were worked by forced labor (slaves) and all profits went to the owner of the land
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade - the trafficking of human beings from Africa to the Americas (trans means across - so across the Atlantic Ocean)
Spread of Slavery - resulted largely due to the invention of the cotton gin which made the product much more profitable
Cotton Gin - machine that cleaned cotton fibers from the seeds and other things caught in the fibers. The invention of this machine multiplied the amount of cotton that one person could clean in a day by fifty (50) - that made cotton a MUCH more profitable crop.
Steamboat - invented by Robert Fulton in 1807, it was boat that was powered by a steam engine. This allowed river travel to go upstream, essentially making rivers two way highways!
Interchangeable Parts - this concept was invented by Eli Whitney, the same guy that invented the cotton gin. The idea was to make products out of parts that could be "inter-change" (swapped) with parts in an identical product.
Bessemer Steel Process
Free Enterprise System
Thursday - February 7th's Class Readings
The Eve of the Industrial Revolution: www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=2&psid=3515
Question to go with above reading: What was production like at the eve of the Industrial Revolution?
Early Industrialization: www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=2&psid=3513
Question to go with above reading: Give three examples from your reading that you felt were important to the American Industrial Revolution
you feel they were important.